Navigating the Self-Help Circus


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Siena
Siena è un comune di 54.391 abitanti della Toscana centrale, capoluogo dell’omonima provincia.
La città è universalmente conosciuta per il suo patrimonio artistico e per la sostanziale unità stilistica del suo arredo urbano medievale, nonché per il suo famoso Palio il centro storico è stato infatti dichiarato dall’UNESCO patrimonio dell’umanità nel 1995.
Siena fu fondata come colonia romana al tempo dell’Imperatore Augusto e prese il nome di Saena Iulia.
All’interno del centro storico senese sono stati ritrovati dei siti di epoca etrusca, che possono far pensare alla fondazione della città da parte degli etruschi.
Il primo documento noto in cui viene citata la comunità senese risale al 70 e porta la firma di Tacito che, nel IV libro delle Historiae, riporta il seguente episodio: il senatore Manlio Patruito riferì a Roma di essere stato malmenato e ridicolizzato con un finto funerale durante la sua visita ufficiale a Saena Iulia, piccola colonia militare della Tuscia. Il Senato romano decise di punire i principali colpevoli e di richiamare severamente i senesi a un maggiore rispetto verso l’autorità.
Dell’alto Medioevo non si hanno documenti che possano illuminare intorno ai casi della vita civile a Siena. C’è qualche notizia relativa alla istituzione del vescovado e della diocesi, specialmente per le questioni sorte fra il Vescovo di Siena e quello di Arezzo, a causa dei confini della zona giurisdizionale di ciascuno: questioni nelle quali intervenne il re longobardo Liutprando, pronunziando sentenza a favore della diocesi aretina. Ma i senesi non furono soddisfatti e pertanto nell’anno 853, quando l’Italia passò dalla dominazione longobarda a quella franca, riuscirono ad ottenere l’annullamento della sentenza emanata dal re Liutprando. Pare, dunque, che al tempo dei Longobardi, Siena fosse governata da un gastaldo, rappresentante del re: Gastaldo che fu poi sostituito da un Conte imperiale dopo l’incoronazione di Carlo Magno. Il primo conte di cui si hanno notizie concrete fu Winigi, figlio di Ranieri, nel 867. Dopo il 900 regnava a Siena l’imperatore Ludovico III, il cui regno non durò così a lungo, dal momento che nel 903 le cronache raccontano di un ritorno dei conti al potere sotto il nuovo governo del re Berengario.
Siena si ritrova nel X secolo al centro di importanti vie commerciali che portavano a Roma e, grazie a ciò divenne un’importante città medievale. Nel XII secolo la città si dota di ordinamenti comunali di tipo consolare, comincia a espandere il proprio territorio e stringe le prime alleanze. Questa situazione di rilevanza sia politica che economica, portano Siena a combattere per i domini settentrionali della Toscana, contro Firenze. Dalla prima metà del XII secolo in poi Siena prospera e diventa un importante centro commerciale, tenendo buoni rapporti con lo Stato della Chiesa i banchieri senesi erano un punto di riferimento per le autorità di Roma, ai quali si rivolgevano per prestiti o finanziamenti.
Alla fine del XII secolo Siena, sostenendo la causa ghibellina (anche se non mancavano, le famiglie senesi di parte guelfa, in sintonia con Firenze), si ritrovò nuovamente contro Firenze di parte guelfa: celebre è la vittoria sui toscani guelfi nella battaglia di Montaperti, del 1260, celebrata anche da Dante Alighieri. Ma dopo qualche anno i senesi ebbero la peggio nella battaglia di Colle Val d’Elsa, del 1269, che portò in seguito, nel 1287, alla ascesa del Governo
dei Nove, di parte guelfa. Sotto questo nuovo governo, Siena raggiunse il suo massimo splendore, sia economico che culturale.
Dopo la peste del 1348, cominciò la lenta decadenza della Repubblica di Siena, che comunque non precluse la strada all’espansione territoriale senese, che fino al giorno della caduta della Repubblica comprendeva un terzo della toscana. La fine della Repubblica Senese, forse l’unico Stato occidentale ad attuare una democrazia pura a favore del popolo, avvenne il 25 aprile 1555, quando la città, dopo un assedio di oltre un anno, dovette arrendersi stremata dalla fame, all’impero di Carlo V, spalleggiato dai fiorentini, che cedette in feudo il territorio della Repubblica ai Medici, Signori di Firenze, per ripagarli delle spese sostenute durante la guerra. Per l’ennesima volta i cittadini senesi riuscirono a tenere testa ad un imperatore, che solo grazie alle proprie smisurate risorse poté piegare la fiera resistenza di questa piccola Repubblica e dei suoi cittadini.
Dopo la caduta della Repubblica pochi senesi guidati peraltro dall’esule fiorentino Piero Strozzi, non volendo accettare la caduta della Repubblica, si rifugiarono in Montalcino, creando la Repubblica di Siena riparata in Montalcino, mantenendo l’alleanza con la Francia, che continuò ad esercitare il proprio potere sulla parte meridionale del territorio della Repubblica, creando notevoli problemi alle truppe degli odiati fiorentini. Essa visse fino al 31 maggio del 1559 quando fu tradita dagli alleati francesi, che Siena aveva sempre sostenuto, che concludendo la pace di Cateau-Cambrésis con l’imperatore Carlo V, cedettero di fatto la Repubblica ai fiorentini.
Lo stemma di Siena è detto &quotbalzana&quot. È uno scudo diviso in due porzioni orizzontali: quella superiore è bianca, quella inferiore nera,con la Lupa che allatta Senio e Ascanio. Secondo la leggenda, starebbe a simboleggiare il fumo nero e bianco scaturito dalla pira augurale che i leggendari fondatori della città, Senio e Ascanio, figli di Remo, avrebbero acceso per ringraziare gli dei dopo la fondazione della città di Siena. Un’altra leggenda riporta che la balzana derivi dai colori dei cavalli, uno bianco ed uno nero, che Senio e Ascanio usarono nella fuga dallo zio Romolo che li voleva uccidere e con i quali giunsero a Siena. Per il loro presunto carattere focoso che, si dice, rasenta la pazzia, anche i senesi sono definiti spesso &quotbalzani&quot.
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Siena (em português também conhecida como Sena) é uma cidade e sede de comuna italiana na região da Toscana, província do mesmo nome, com cerca de 52.775 (ISTAT 2003) habitantes. Estende-se por uma área de 118 km2, tendo uma densidade populacional de 447 hab/km2. Faz fronteira com Asciano, Castelnuovo Berardenga, Monteriggioni, Monteroni d’Arbia e Sovicille.
Siena é universalmente conhecida pelo seu património artístico e pela notável unidade estilística do seu centro histórico, classificado pela UNESCO como Património da Humanidade.
Segundo a mitologia romana, Siena foi fundada por Sénio, filho de Remo, e podem-se encontrar numerosas estátuas e obras de arte mostrando, tal como em Roma, os irmãos amamentados pela loba. Foi um povoamento etrusco e depois colónia romana (Saena Julia) refundada pelo imperador Augusto. Era, contudo, uma pequena povoação, longe das rotas principais do Império. No século V, torna-se sede de uma diocese cristã.
As antigas famílias aristocráticas de Siena reclamam origem nos Lombardos e à information da submissão da Lombardia a Carlos Magno (774). A grande influência da cidade como pólo cultural, artístico e político é iniciada no século XII, quando se converte num burgo autogovernado de cariz republicano, substituindo o esquema feudal.
Todavia, o esquema político conduziu sempre a lutas internas entre nobres e externas com a cidade rival de Florença. Information do século XIII a ruptura entre as facções rivais dos Guibelinos de Siena e dos Guelfos de Florença, que seria argumento para a Divina Comédia de Dante.
Em 4 de Setembro de 1260, os Guibelinos apoiaram as forças do rei Manfredo da Sicília e derrotaram os Guelfos em Montaperti, que tinham um exército muito superior em armas e homens. Antes da batalha, toda a cidade fora consagrada à Virgem Maria e confiada à sua protecção. Hoje, essa protecção é recordada e renovada, lembrando os sienenses da ameaça dos aliados da Segunda Guerra Mundial de bombardearam a cidade em 1944, o que felizmente não veio a acontecer.
Siena rivalizou no campo das artes durante o período medieval até o século XIV com as cidades vizinhas. Porém, devastada em 1348 pela Peste Negra, nunca recuperou o seu esplendor, perdendo também a sua rivalidade interurbana com Florença. A Siena actual tem um aspecto muito semelhante ao dos séculos XIII-XIV. Detém uma universidade fundada em 1203, famosa pelas faculdades de Direito e Medicina, e que é uma das mais prestigiadas universidades italianas.
Em 1557 perde a independência e é integrada nas formações políticas e administrativas da Toscana.
Siena também deu vários Papas, sendo eles: Alexandre III, Pio II, Pio III e Alexandre VII.
Os dois grandes santos de Siena são Santa Catarina (1347-1380) e São Bernardino (1380-1444). Catarina Benincasa, filha de um humilde tintureiro, fez-se irmã na Ordem Terceira dominicana (para leigos)e viveu como monja na casa dos pais. É famosa pelo intercâmbio interior com o próprio Cristo, que num êxtase lhe disse: &quotEu sou aquele que é e tú és aquela que não é&quot. Apesar da origem modesta, influenciou papas e príncipes com sua sabedoria e seu exemplo, conseguindo inclusive convencer o papa de então, contra a maioria dos cardeais, a regressar a Roma do exílio de Avinhon na França. Quanto ao franciscano São Bernardino, ele é célebre por ter sido o maior expoente, no Catolicismo, da by way of espiritual de invocação do Nome Divino, que encontra similares em todas as grandes religiões, do Budismo (nembutsu) ao Islã ([[dhikr]]) e ao Hinduísmo (mantra). Os sermões que Bernbardino fez na praça central de Siena provocaram tal fervor religioso e devoção ao nome de Jesus que o conselho municipal decidiu colocar o monograma do nome de Jesus (composto pelas letras IHS, significando &quotJesus salvador dos homens&quot)na fachada do prédio do governo. Do mesmo modo, muitos cidadãos o pintaram sobre as fachadas de suas casas, como até hoje se pode ver na cidade.

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Siena also widely spelled Sienna in English) is a city in Tuscany, Italy. It is the capital of the province of Siena.
The historic centre of Siena has been declared by UNESCO a Planet Heritage Internet site. It is a single of the nation’s most visited tourist attractions, with more than 163,000 international arrivals in 2008.[1] Siena is renowned for its cuisine, art, museums, medieval cityscape and the palio.
Siena, like other Tuscan hill towns, was initial settled in the time of the Etruscans (c. 900–400 BC) when it was inhabited by a tribe known as the Saina. The Etruscans have been an sophisticated people who changed the face of central Italy by way of their use of irrigation to reclaim previously unfarmable land, and their custom of building their settlements in effectively-defended hill-forts. A Roman town called Saena Julia was founded at the web site in the time of the Emperor Augustus. The initial document mentioning it dates from AD 70. Some archaeologists assert that Siena was controlled for a period by a Gaulish tribe named the Saenones.
The Roman origin accounts for the town’s emblem: a she-wolf suckling infants Romulus and Remus. According to legend, Siena was founded by Senius, son of Remus, who was in turn the brother of Romulus, right after whom Rome was named. Statues and other artwork depicting a she-wolf suckling the young twins Romulus and Remus can be seen all over the city of Siena. Other etymologies derive the name from the Etruscan loved ones name &quotSaina,&quot the Roman loved ones name of the &quotSaenii,&quot or the Latin word &quotsenex&quot (&quotold&quot) or the derived type &quotseneo&quot, &quotto be old&quot.
Siena did not prosper under Roman rule. It was not sited close to any main roads and lacked opportunities for trade. Its insular status meant that Christianity did not penetrate until the 4th century AD, and it was not until the Lombards invaded Siena and the surrounding territory that it knew prosperity. Right after the Lombard occupation, the old Roman roads of By way of Aurelia and the Through Cassia passed by way of regions exposed to Byzantine raids, so the Lombards rerouted significantly of their trade between the Lombards’ northern possessions and Rome along a more safe road by way of Siena. Siena prospered as a trading post, and the constant streams of pilgrims passing to and from Rome provided a worthwhile source of revenue in the centuries to come.
The oldest aristocratic households in Siena date their line to the Lombards’ surrender in 774 to Charlemagne. At this point, the city was inundated with a swarm of Frankish overseers who married into the current Sienese nobility and left a legacy that can be observed in the abbeys they founded throughout Sienese territory. Feudal energy waned nonetheless, and by the death of Countess Matilda in 1115 the border territory of the Mark of Tuscia which had been below the manage of her household, the Canossa, broke up into numerous autonomous regions.
Siena prospered as a city-state, becoming a key centre of funds lending and an crucial player in the wool trade. It was governed at very first directly by its bishop, but episcopal power declined during the 12th century. The bishop was forced to concede a higher say in the running of the city to the nobility in exchange for their assist in the course of a territorial dispute with Arezzo, and this started a process which culminated in 1167 when the commune of Siena declared its independence from episcopal manage. By 1179, it had a written constitution.
This period was also vital in shaping the Siena we know right now. It was in the course of the early 13th century that the majority of the construction of the Siena Cathedral (Duomo) was completed. It was also for the duration of this period that the Piazza del Campo, now regarded as a single of the most lovely civic spaces in Europe, grew in significance as the centre of secular life. New streets have been constructed leading to it, and it served as the internet site of the marketplace and the location of various sporting events (perhaps greater thought of as riots, in the style of the Florentine football matches that are nevertheless practised to this day). A wall was constructed in 1194 at the current website of the Palazzo Pubblico to cease soil erosion, an indication of how crucial the location was becoming as a civic space.
In the early 12th century a self-governing commune replaced the earlier aristocratic government. The consuls who governed the republic slowly became more inclusive of the poblani, or typical people, and the commune improved its territory as the surrounding feudal nobles in their fortified castles submitted to the urban power. Siena’s republic, struggling internally amongst nobles and the well-liked party, normally worked in political opposition to its excellent rival, Florence, and was in the 13th century predominantly Ghibelline in opposition to Florence’s Guelph position (this conflict formed the backdrop for some of Dante’s Commedia).
On four September 1260 the Sienese Ghibellines, supported by the forces of King Manfred of Sicily, defeated the Florentine Guelphs in the Battle of Montaperti. Just before the battle, the Sienese army of about 20,000 faced a a lot larger Florentine army of around 33,000. Prior to the battle, the entire city was devoted to the Virgin Mary (this was done several occasions in the city’s history, most lately in 1944 to guard the city from Allied bombs). The man given command of Siena for the duration of the war, Bonaguida Lucari, walked barefoot and bareheaded, a halter around his neck, to the Duomo. Leading a procession composed of all the city’s residents, he was met by all the clergy. Lucari and the bishop embraced, to show the unity of church and state, then Lucari formally gave the city and contrade to the Virgin. Legend has it that a thick white cloud descended on the battlefield, giving the Sienese cover and aiding their attack. The reality was that the Florentine army launched a number of fruitless attacks against the Sienese army throughout the day, then when the Sienese army countered with their own offensive, traitors within the Florentine army killed the standard bearer and in the resulting chaos, the Florentine army broke up and fled the battlefield. Practically half the Florentine army (some 15,000 males) have been killed as a result. So crushing was the defeat that even nowadays if the two cities meet in any sporting event, the Sienese supporters are most likely to exhort their Florentine counterparts to “Remember Montaperti!”.
The limits on the Roman town, were the earliest identified walls to the city. Throughout the 10th and 11th centuries, the town grew to the east and later to the north, in what is now the Camollia district. Walls had been constructed to completely surround the city, and a second set was completed by the end of the 13th century. A lot of these walls nevertheless exist right now.[2]
Siena’s university, founded in 1240 and famed for its faculties of law and medicine, is nonetheless amongst the most critical Italian universities. Siena rivalled Florence in the arts throughout the 13th and 14th centuries: the critical late medieval painter Duccio di Buoninsegna (1253–1319) was a Sienese, but worked across the peninsula, and the mural of &quotGood Government&quot by Ambrogio Lorenzetti in the Palazzo Pubblico, or town hall, is a magnificent instance of late-Medieval/early Renaissance art as nicely as a representation of the utopia of urban society as conceived for the duration of that period. Siena was devastated by the Black Death of 1348, and also suffered from ill-fated financial enterprises. In 1355, with the arrival of Charles IV of Luxembourg in the city, the population rose and suppressed the government of the Nove (Nine), establishing that Dodici (Twelve) nobles assisted by a council with a common majority. This was also short-lived, being replaced by the Quindici (Fifteen) reformers in 1385, the Dieci (Ten, 1386–1387), Undici (Eleven, 1388–1398) and Twelve Priors (1398–1399) who, in the end, gave the city’s seigniory to Gian Galeazzo Visconti of Milan in order to defend it from the Florentine expansionism.
In 1404 the Visconti were expelled and a government of Ten Priors established, in alliance with Florence against King Ladislas of Naples. With the election of the Sienese Pius II as Pope, the Piccolomini and other noble households had been allowed to return to the government, but after his death the manage returned into well-liked hands. In 1472 the Republic founded the Monte dei Paschi, a bank that is nevertheless active today and is the oldest surviving bank in the planet. The noble factions returned in the city beneath Pandolfo Petrucci in 1487, with the support of Florence and of Alfonso of Calabria Petrucci exerted an efficient rule on the city till his death in 1512, favouring arts and sciences, and defending it from Cesare Borgia. Pandolfo was succeeded by his son Borghese, who was ousted by his cousin Raffaello, helped by the Medici Pope Leo X. The final Petrucci was Fabio, exiled in 1523 by the Sienese men and women. Internal strife resumed, with the well-liked faction ousting the Noveschi celebration supported by Clement VII: the latter sent an army, but was defeated at Camollia in 1526. Emperor Charles V took benefit of the chaotic predicament to put a Spanish garrison in Siena. The citizens expelled it in 1552, allying with France: this was unacceptable for Charles, who sent his general Gian Giacomo Medici to lay siege to it with a Florentine-Imperial army.
The Sienese government entrusted its defence to Piero Strozzi. When the latter was defeated at the Battle of Marciano (August 1554), any hope of relief was lost. Right after 18 months of resistance, it surrendered to Spain on 17 April 1555, marking the finish of the Republic of Siena. The new Spanish King Philip, owing massive sums to the Medici, ceded it (apart a series of coastal fortress annexed to the State of Presidi) to the Grand Duchy of Tuscany, to which it belonged until the unification of Italy in the 19th century. A Republican government of 700 Sienese households in Montalcino resisted till 1559.
The picturesque city remains an crucial cultural centre, particularly for humanist disciplines
By Rodrigo_Soldon on 2010-09-12 ten:24:32
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