What do Jews believe? What are the basic beliefs of the Jewish faith? A brief overview of Judaism. Please support the Planet History Playlist! https://www.gofundme.com/2chw7a4 Watch Mesopotamia Explained Right here https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=RiclXLWQk4k Watch the Arab-Israeli Conflict Right here! https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=cMv7_eOb0B4
IMG_5145A Richard Brakenburgh. 1650-1702. Haarlem. Joyeuse Compagnie. Merry Firm. vers 1680 Haarlem. Musée Frans Hals.
Richard Brakenburgh. 1650-1702. Haarlem. Joyeuse Compagnie. Merry Organization. vers 1680 Haarlem. Musée Frans Hals.
LA PEINTURE EUROPEENNE : UNE HISTOIRE EN IMAGE ( three )
L’Europe a connu dans son histoire plusieurs ruptures de valeurs spirituelles et morales, et de civilisations, dont l’Art, et la peinture en particulier, témoignent très clairement. Quatre ruptures plus ou moins brutales et plus ou moins sensibles :
– La fin de la civilisation gréco-romaine et l’avènement du christianisme. (1)
– La "Renaissance" (2)
– La "Réforme" (3)
– Les "Lumières" (4)
A chacun de ces stades, l’art européen – la peinture en particulier- a changé, plus ou moins vite, plus ou moins profondément.
A partir du 16è siècle la "Réforme" donne naissance à une troisième grande rupture de civilisation dans l’histoire de l’Europe. La Réforme a des dimensions et des implications qui ne sont pas seulement culturelles, mais aussi politiques et économiques. Surtout la Réforme concerne les peuples, très directement, dans leur vie quotidienne. Les peuples sont contraints par leurs élites de changer de religion, et en partie de morale. Globalement parlant c’est aussi une rupture entre l’Europe du Nord – non colonisée par les romains- et l’Europe du sud. L’Europe Slave à l’est est un peu moins concernée. Pas du tout si on s’avance plus vers l’Est.
Le protestantisme fait indéniablement partie de l’idéologie chrétienne, et participe des mêmes sources sémitiques. Mais ce tronc commun cache de considérables différences dans la vision du monde, la conception de l’homme et de la société. Le protestantisme renoue avec l’Ancien Testament. Le protestantisme emprunte beaucoup de ses références au Judaïsme. D’où un conflit explosif et meurtrier avec le catholicisme et l’orthodoxie. Contrairement à la légende, toujours bien vivante, les catholiques (les papistes !) ne sont pas les seuls responsables de la rupture ! La responsabilité est évidemment totalement partagée.
Une des différences, absolument majeure, décisive en terme de culture, entre le catholicisme et l’orthodoxie d’une portion, et les protestantismes et le judaïsme d’autre component, est la considération et l’importance accordées à la Richesse et à la Réussite sociale.
L’Ancien Testament, qui inspire le Judaïsme, mais aussi beaucoup les Protestantismes, accorde à la réussite financière et sociale de l’homme, une très grande value. Cette réussite est même considérée comme une preuve, ou au moins une sérieuse présomption, de l’élection divine, et de la Grâce de Dieu. Il y a bien sûr des circumstances, qui ne sont pas annexes : Job a du prouver sa foi malgré les coups du sort qui lui étaient infligés. L’homme riche, puissant et heureux est l’homme protégé par les Dieux. C’est une très vieille conception des rapports entre l’homme et les divinités qui était aussi une constante des religions polythéistes et animistes.
Par contre, la réussite matérielle, sur terre, en ce "bas monde", comprise comme une porte ouverte sur le paradis dans le ciel, ce n’est pas du tout un enseignement des Evangiles. Au contraire, pour les Evangiles, le Catholicisme et l’Orthodoxie, c’est très clairement la pauvreté qui est une porte grande ouverte sur le Royaume des Cieux. Le Nouveau Testament est très clairement en rupture avec l’Ancien sur ce point.
La différence est absolument fondamentale. Toute la conception du monde, de l’homme, de la société, en est profondément modifiée.
Le changement de point de vue sur le monde et l’homme, qui résulte de la Réforme, apparaît dans la peinture, très clairement, avec l’art du siècle d’or (17è) des Pays Bas du Nord qui, contrairement à l’Allemagne, ont adopté un protestantisme de tendance calviniste. Un art à l’évidence réaliste, naturaliste, matérialiste. Un art qui célèbre, magnifiquement, le monde des hommes, ses richesses, ses paysages, ses fleurs, ses légumes, ses harengs, ses homards et ses fromages.
Même si, parfois, le peintre place une tête de mort à côté des écrevisses et du verre de vin. La tête de mort ne contrebalance pas vraiment l’effet produit par le buffet abondamment garni.
En dehors des Pays Bas la peinture européenne demeure très orientée par l’idéologie catholique et l’esprit humaniste apparu à la fin du 15è et au début du 16è siècle. Les tableaux ont donc essentiellement pour thème la religion et la mythologie ou l’histoire de l’antiquité. La peinture de moeurs, le paysage ont leur place, mais elle demeure relativement mineure.
LA PEINTURE EUROPEENNE : A STORY IN Image ( three )
In its history, Europe has seasoned several failures of its spiritual and moral values. A number of ruptures of civilizations, whose the Art, and painting in certain, demonstrate quite clearly. Four breaks, much more or much less brutal and far more or less sensitive:
-The end of the Greco-Roman civilization and the advent of Christianity. (1)
-The "Renaissance" (two)
-The "Reform" (3)
-The "Lights" (4)
At each of these stages, the European art – painting in certain – has changed, more or less speedily, a lot more or less deeply
As from 16th century, the "Reform" gives birth to a third significant rupture of civilization in the history of Europe. The Reform has dimensions and implications that are not only cultural but also political and economic. Specifically the Reform issues the folks extremely straight in their everyday lives. The peoples are forced by their elites to alter their religion, and partly their everyday morality. Generally speaking it is also a rupture in between northern Europe – not colonized by romains- and southern Europe. The Slave Europe, East, is a small much less concerned. Not at all if we advance further east.
Protestantism is undeniably part of the Christian ideology, and took component of the very same Semitic sources. But this widespread core, hides considerable variations in the vision of the world, in the conception of human and society. Protestantism returns to the Old Testament. Protestantism borrows many references to Judaism. Exactly where an explosive and deadly conflict with Catholicism and Orthodoxy. Contrary to legend, still alive, Catholics (the Papists!) Are not solely accountable for the break! The duty is of course completely shared.
One of the differences, completely key, decisive in terms of culture, between Catholicism and Orthodoxy on the 1 hand, and Protestantism and Judaism on the other hand, is the consideration and importance attached to the Walth and social Accomplishment.
The Old Testament, which inspires Judaism, but also the several Protestantisms, attached tot the economic and social accomplishment of man, extremely excellent importance. This achievement is even deemed as proof, or at least a severe presumption, of divine election, and the Grace of God. There are of course situations, not annexes: Job had to prove her faith despite the blows of fate inflicted upon him. The man rich, potent and happy is the man protected by the gods. This is a very old conception of the relationship between man and the gods. It is a quite old conception of the relations amongst man and deities which was also a continual of the polytheistic and animist religions.
By against, the material good results, on Earth, in this "lowly world", understood as an open door to paradise in heaven, this is not a teaching of the Gospels. On the contrary, to the Gospels, Catholicism and Orthodoxy, it is very clear that poverty is a main open door to the Kingdom of Heaven. The New Testament is extremely clear a break with the ancien on this point.
The distinction is completely fundamental. Any world view, of man, of society, is profoundly changed.
The alter of viewpoint on the planet and mankindthat resulting from the Reformation, appears in the painting, really clearly, with the art of the Golden Age (17 th Century) of the Northern Low Nations (Netherland) which, unlike Germany, adopted a Calvinist Protestantism trend. An art naturally realistic, naturalistic, materialistic. An art that celebrates, beautifully, the world of men, its wealth, its landscapes, its flowers, its vegetables, its herring, its lobsters and its cheeses.
Though sometimes the painter draws a skull next to crayfish and the glass of wine. The skull does not truly offset the effect created bey the abundantly stocked buffet.
Outside the Netherlands, the European painting remains extremely oriented by the Catholic ideology and the humanist spirit that emerged at the end of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th century. The tables for that reason have primarily the theme of religion and mythology or history of antiquity. The painting of manners, the landscape have their location, but it remains reasonably minor.
By jean louis mazieres on 2015-05-07 11:46:07
Hasan A. Yahya, Ph.Ds, a writer from the Unholy Land
Studying various stories of creation from culture to culture is extremely fascinating as you start to see the several similarities and the variations that reflect the core of the culture’s beliefs and practices. It also helps to understand several of the culture’s practices and the artifacts that are found. In this post we continue the Myth of creation according to old Egyptian history.
The Egyptian culture is a really old and rich one particular that has fascinated the planet for centuries, if not longer. What we do not know about them, we fill in with fantasy and new movies. As with most cultures, the story of the creation of the world was passed down from generation to generation so there can be variations of the story inside all the sub-cultures of Egypt. The Egyptians explained how creation started from the nature they saw around them. The biggest elements had been the Nile River and the sun, so each and every of these played a major element in the creation story.
Extended ago, just before there was something that you see now, there was Nu. He was the Excellent Waters. Deep within him lived eight gods recognized as Ogdoad. They have been Nun and Nunet who had been gods of the deep waters. Heh and Hehet ruled the endless space. Kek and Keket controlled darkenss. Amon and Amonet ruled all that was invisible. They were guard the Wonderful Egg in which the Creator slept.
Sooner or later the Wonderful Egg started to crack. It split in two and divided the Nun into two parts: what you hear us call the Upper and the Decrease. In in between the parts, a space was left so that the Creator could start to develop the rest of the planet.
A large blue Lotus rose up from the egg and passed via the deep waters. As soon as it had risen above the waters, it opened its petals to reveal the Creator, Amen-Re. Light shone from Amen-Re and pushed darkness to the ends of the universe. He rose up into the space and released the loudest cry that ended the silence that had constantly been. From this sound, Toth, the god of wisdom was developed.
Amon-Re then returned to the space that was left amongst the Upper and Lower and developed an island to get in touch with residence. As time went on he realized that getting alone can be painful. So, he began to produce everything else.
The creator 1st designed Maat, the goddess of Balance, Truth, and Justice. He realized how critical this would be for all creation. Maat became the wife of Thoth and collectively wisdom and truth ruled. The creator continued to develop other beings and providing them authority. There was the god of air, Shu. He produced the goddess of moisture, Tefnut.
Amon-Re nonetheless felt extremely alone. So, he reached up and removed 1 of his eyes and from it produced his daughter. Hathor became the goddess of the sky and was provided a location of honor in Amon-Re’s forehead taking the shape of the great cobra that you know as the Uraeus serpent.
Shu took Tefnut as a wife and twins have been given to them, Geb the god of earth and Nut, goddess of the heavens. Amon-Re took Nut for his wife though in her heart she wanted her brother, Geb, to be her husband. They began to meet secretly not realizing the chaos they had been causing. Amon-Re found them on day and in anger separated them. He pushed sky way above the earth. Shu was placed in between them to stop any far more encounters.
But the chaos still remained. Re found that his wife was to have kids by Geb. He punished her by stopping her from ever providing birth. The kids would keep inside her forever. Nut was devastated that she could not be with her lover and could not hold her youngsters in her arms. Her loud cries penetrated the complete universe. Thoth, the god of wisdom, heard her cries and began to search for a way to comfort her. He decided to challenge the mood goddess, Silene, into risking a portion of her light for every single day of the year. He won the wager which is why as the month goes on you will see Silene’s glow grow smaller sized and smaller sized. He took the light he won and when all those little pieces of light were put collectively, 5 further days have been produced that he could add to the year. Considering that these days were not part of the original creation of Re and did not fall into any of the months Re ordained, Thoth identified a way for Nut to give birth to her young children. So on each and every of those 5 days, Nut gave birth to a youngster. Day 1 was Osiris. Day 2 was Elder Horus. Day three was Set who was the god of warfare. Day 4 was Isis who was the goddess of love. Day five was Nephthys.
Osiris took Isis as his wife and Set took Nephthys as his wife.
More than time Re began to develop other gods and numerous spirits and demons. Sooner or later, Re designed Man and all the animals on the earth. He created the land of Khemet or Egypt and placed man there. Re placed the desert around man to safeguard him and the Nile was to flood the earth to supply wealthy soil. So is the story of the creation. ( 920 words) www.askdryahya.com
Professor, Dr. Hasan A. Yahya is an Arab American writer, scholar, and professor of Sociology lives in the United States of America, initially from Palestine. He graduated from Michigan State University with two Ph.d degrees. He published 65 books plus (45 Arabic and 20 English), and 300 plus articles on sociology, religion, psychology, politics, poetry, and quick stories. Philosophically, his writings concern logic, justice and human rights worldwide. Dr. Yahya is the author of Crescentologism: The Moon Theory, and Islam Finds its Way, on Amazon. He’s an expert on Race Relations, Arab and Islamic cultures, he is also, interested in religion, world affairs and global strategic arranging for justice and human rights. www.dryahyatv.com