Documentary on the history of Judaism, the Bible (Torah/Tanakh) and the Jewish men and women of Israel.
This documentary focuses on many accepts of the origins of the Jewish religion recognized these days as Judaism, as properly as the historical and archeological proof that the Jews are Canaanites in origin.
The Bible and other historical records have verified that the Hebrew Israelites had been Canaanites themselves who seperated themselves from the “higher class” Canaanite rulers who have been pagans. These Canaanites who started believing in only 1 God became identified as the Hebrew Israelites and later in history as Jews (Judeans) and Samaritans. From there the documentary focuses on how Judaism evolved throughout the Assyrian and Babylonian exile and so on.
IMG_4482 Jaume Serra. Actif en Catalogne vers 1358-1390. Retable de la Mère de Dieu. Altarpiece of the Mother of God. Barcelone MNAC.
Jaume Serra. Actif en Catalogne vers 1358-1390. Retable de la Mère de Dieu. Altarpiece of the Mother of God. Barcelone MNAC.
Gothique espagnol influencé par l’Italie, Jaume Serra succède aux Bassa. Le retable date du début de la carrière du peintre.
Gothic Spanish influenced by Italy, Jaume Serra succeeds the Bassa. The altarpiece dates from the starting of the painter’s career.
LA PEINTURE EUROPEENNE : UNE HISTOIRE EN IMAGE ( 3 )
L’Europe a connu dans son histoire plusieurs ruptures de valeurs spirituelles et morales, et de civilisations, dont l’Art, et la peinture en particulier, témoignent très clairement. Quatre ruptures plus ou moins brutales et plus ou moins sensibles :
– La fin de la civilisation gréco-romaine et l’avènement du christianisme. (1)
– La "Renaissance" (two)
– La "Réforme" (3)
– Les "Lumières" (4)
A chacun de ces stades, l’art européen – la peinture en particulier- a changé, plus ou moins vite, plus ou moins profondément.
A partir du 16è siècle la "Réforme" donne naissance à une troisième grande rupture de civilisation dans l’histoire de l’Europe. La Réforme a des dimensions et des implications qui ne sont pas seulement culturelles, mais aussi politiques et économiques. Surtout la Réforme concerne les peuples, très directement, dans leur vie quotidienne. Les peuples sont contraints par leurs élites de changer de religion, et en partie de morale. Globalement parlant c’est aussi une rupture entre l’Europe du Nord – non colonisée par les romains- et l’Europe du sud. L’Europe Slave à l’est est un peu moins concernée. Pas du tout si on s’avance plus vers l’Est.
Le protestantisme fait indéniablement partie de l’idéologie chrétienne, et participe des mêmes sources sémitiques. Mais ce tronc commun cache de considérables différences dans la vision du monde, la conception de l’homme et de la société. Le protestantisme renoue avec l’Ancien Testament. Le protestantisme emprunte beaucoup de ses références au Judaïsme. D’où un conflit explosif et meurtrier avec le catholicisme et l’orthodoxie. Contrairement à la légende, toujours bien vivante, les catholiques (les papistes !) ne sont pas les seuls responsables de la rupture ! La responsabilité est évidemment totalement partagée.
Une des différences, absolument majeure, décisive en terme de culture, entre le catholicisme et l’orthodoxie d’une portion, et les protestantismes et le judaïsme d’autre element, est la considération et l’importance accordées à la Richesse et à la Réussite sociale.
L’Ancien Testament, qui inspire le Judaïsme, mais aussi beaucoup les Protestantismes, accorde à la réussite financière et sociale de l’homme, une très grande significance. Cette réussite est même considérée comme une preuve, ou au moins une sérieuse présomption, de l’élection divine, et de la Grâce de Dieu. Il y a bien sûr des situations, qui ne sont pas annexes : Job a du prouver sa foi malgré les coups du sort qui lui étaient infligés. L’homme riche, puissant et heureux est l’homme protégé par les Dieux. C’est une très vieille conception des rapports entre l’homme et les divinités qui était aussi une constante des religions polythéistes et animistes.
Par contre, la réussite matérielle, sur terre, en ce "bas monde", comprise comme une porte ouverte sur le paradis dans le ciel, ce n’est pas du tout un enseignement des Evangiles. Au contraire, pour les Evangiles, le Catholicisme et l’Orthodoxie, c’est très clairement la pauvreté qui est une porte grande ouverte sur le Royaume des Cieux. Le Nouveau Testament est très clairement en rupture avec l’Ancien sur ce point.
La différence est absolument fondamentale. Toute la conception du monde, de l’homme, de la société, en est profondément modifiée.
Le changement de point de vue sur le monde et l’homme, qui résulte de la Réforme, apparaît dans la peinture, très clairement, avec l’art du siècle d’or (17è) des Pays Bas du Nord qui, contrairement à l’Allemagne, ont adopté un protestantisme de tendance calviniste. Un art à l’évidence réaliste, naturaliste, matérialiste. Un art qui célèbre, magnifiquement, le monde des hommes, ses richesses, ses paysages, ses fleurs, ses légumes, ses harengs, ses homards et ses fromages.
Même si, parfois, le peintre location une tête de mort à côté des écrevisses et du verre de vin. La tête de mort ne contrebalance pas vraiment l’effet produit par le buffet abondamment garni.
En dehors des Pays Bas la peinture européenne demeure très orientée par l’idéologie catholique et l’esprit humaniste apparu à la fin du 15è et au début du 16è siècle. Les tableaux ont donc essentiellement pour thème la religion et la mythologie ou l’histoire de l’antiquité. La peinture de moeurs, le paysage ont leur spot, mais elle demeure relativement mineure.
LA PEINTURE EUROPEENNE : A STORY IN Image ( three )
In its history, Europe has seasoned numerous failures of its spiritual and moral values. A number of ruptures of civilizations, whose the Art, and painting in certain, demonstrate very clearly. Four breaks, much more or much less brutal and much more or much less sensitive:
-The end of the Greco-Roman civilization and the advent of Christianity. (1)
-The "Renaissance" (two)
-The "Reform" (3)
-The "Lights" (4)
At every single of these stages, the European art – painting in certain – has changed, more or much less swiftly, more or less deeply
As from 16th century, the "Reform" gives birth to a third major rupture of civilization in the history of Europe. The Reform has dimensions and implications that are not only cultural but also political and financial. Specially the Reform concerns the folks really straight in their day-to-day lives. The peoples are forced by their elites to modify their religion, and partly their daily morality. Usually speaking it is also a rupture in between northern Europe – not colonized by romains- and southern Europe. The Slave Europe, East, is a little significantly less concerned. Not at all if we advance additional east.
Protestantism is undeniably component of the Christian ideology, and took element of the exact same Semitic sources. But this frequent core, hides considerable variations in the vision of the world, in the conception of human and society. Protestantism returns to the Old Testament. Protestantism borrows several references to Judaism. Exactly where an explosive and deadly conflict with Catholicism and Orthodoxy. Contrary to legend, nevertheless alive, Catholics (the Papists!) Are not solely responsible for the break! The duty is of course totally shared.
One of the variations, completely main, decisive in terms of culture, among Catholicism and Orthodoxy on the 1 hand, and Protestantism and Judaism on the other hand, is the consideration and value attached to the Walth and social Success.
The Old Testament, which inspires Judaism, but also the numerous Protestantisms, attached tot the economic and social good results of man, quite fantastic importance. This accomplishment is even regarded as proof, or at least a severe presumption, of divine election, and the Grace of God. There are of course conditions, not annexes: Job had to prove her faith regardless of the blows of fate inflicted upon him. The man rich, effective and pleased is the man protected by the gods. This is a very old conception of the relationship in between man and the gods. It is a very old conception of the relations amongst man and deities which was also a continuous of the polytheistic and animist religions.
By against, the material good results, on Earth, in this "lowly planet", understood as an open door to paradise in heaven, this is not a teaching of the Gospels. On the contrary, to the Gospels, Catholicism and Orthodoxy, it is very clear that poverty is a key open door to the Kingdom of Heaven. The New Testament is very clear a break with the ancien on this point.
The difference is absolutely basic. Any globe view, of man, of society, is profoundly changed.
The change of perspective on the planet and mankindthat resulting from the Reformation, seems in the painting, extremely clearly, with the art of the Golden Age (17 th Century) of the Northern Low Countries (Netherland) which, unlike Germany, adopted a Calvinist Protestantism trend. An art certainly realistic, naturalistic, materialistic. An art that celebrates, beautifully, the world of guys, its wealth, its landscapes, its flowers, its vegetables, its herring, its lobsters and its cheeses.
Even though often the painter draws a skull subsequent to crayfish and the glass of wine. The skull does not actually offset the effect developed bey the abundantly stocked buffet.
Outdoors the Netherlands, the European painting remains extremely oriented by the Catholic ideology and the humanist spirit that emerged at the finish of the 15th and the beginning of the 16th century. The tables consequently have basically the theme of religion and mythology or history of antiquity. The painting of manners, the landscape have their spot, but it remains fairly minor.
By jean louis mazieres on 2016-12-13 12:03:42
Hasan A. Yahya, Ph.Ds, a writer from the Unholy Land
How did the planet begin? The Aztec creation story has its personal answer – or you could say, answers, to that query. The 5 suns were the essential to the rebirths of the planet.
The story of creation in ancient Mexico and surrounding regions in fact changed as time went by. It was likely adapted by the Aztecs for their own political purposes, although even within the Aztec empire there had been variations of the story. But fundamental components of the story had evolved over centuries and centuries, so we do see similarities in between the Aztec’s stories and the beliefs of earlier cultures.
Rebirth: The story of creation, according to the Aztecs, is truly a story of birth, death, and rebirth. When the globe is destroyed, it is born once more through the sacrifice of a single of the gods, and so via the birth of a new sun. So you are going to often hear of the legend of the 5 suns – the 5 births of the planet. Five suns, and so five distinct worlds, have existed. When the story is told, the order of the worlds is sometimes diverse, at times there are even less that five suns, but the general thought remains the identical.
But it’s not a story of endless cycles, as you might see in other cultures. For the Aztecs, the universe did have an actual beginning.
In the starting was the void. It was at some ancient time in the Aztec creation story that the dual god, Ometecuhtli/Omecihuatl, designed itself. (Searching back, of course, the Aztecs believed that the a lot of opposites that they saw in the globe would have to somehow unite in the origin of the planet.) This god was great and negative, chaos and order, male and female. Being male and female, it was capable to have kids. It had 4, which came to represent the 4 directions of north, south, east and west. The gods have been Huizilopochtli (south), Quetzalcoatl (east), Tezcatlipoca (west), and Xipe Totec (west).
The directions have been really essential to the Aztecs, considering that their excellent empire was believed to be at the very centre of the universe (bear in mind what I mentioned about the Aztec creation story being political?).
These 4 gods began to produce. They developed water, and other gods, and the sea monster Cipactli. Cipactli was element fish and portion crocodile, a enormous creature as huge as all issues that now are. This was a consuming monster, a jaw at each joint. Cipactli was to turn out to be the source of the cosmos in a strange way.
As the gods continued to develop, they had a problem – their creations would fall into the water and be eaten by the dreadful Cipactli. So it was time for war – the 4 gods attacked the sea monster, pulling her in 4 directions. She fought back, biting Tezcatlipoca and tearing off his foot. But at final Cipactli was destroyed.
From this massive creature the universe was designed (in some traditions this happened among the final two suns). All the 13 heavens stretch into her head. The earth was designed in the middle, and her tail reaches down to the underworld (Mictlán) (nine underworlds, to be precise).
You could say that in the Aztec creation story the planet is on the back of this sea monster, floating in the water of space (reminiscent of the Iroquois belief that the globe rests on the back of a turtle).
The 1st sun – Jaguar Sun (Nahui Ocelotl): To full the world, the fantastic supply of power had to be created – the sun. This is the crucial to the cycles in the Aztec creation story. But the sun is so strong, it cannot just be produced. It can only come into being through the sacrifice of a god. The god selected was Tezcatlipoca.
Tezcatlipoca only managed to turn out to be half a sun, even so, generating this initial creation incomplete. During the very first age, the gods produced giants from ashes, and gave them acorns to eat.
A fight began, however, between Quetzalcoatl and Tezcatlipoca. In the end, the sun was knocked from the sky, and in anger Tezcatlipoca sent jaguars to destroy the giants.
The second sun – Wind Sun (Nahui Ehecatl): At this point Quetzalcoatl took over for his brother as the sun. Humans had been created as they are now (normal size). They lived on piñon nuts, and for a although issues were fine. But the individuals became corrupt, and maybe out of revenge Tezcatlipoca turned them into monkeys. Furious, Quetzalcoatl sent a hurricane to blow the monkeys away.
The third sun – Rain Sun (Nahui Quiahuitl): Tlaloc was one of the early creations of the gods, the god of rain and water. He became the subsequent sun. But his personal troubles became his downfall. Once once again, Tezcatlipoca was the instigator. Tezcatlipoca stole Tlaloc’s wife (Xochiquetzal), and Tlaloc was grief-stricken. He shone as the sun but refused to send rain, in spite of the pleas of the men and women. Drought swept the earth, and lastly in a rage Tlaloc created it rain fire, burning away this version of the world. (Another version attributes the destruction of this world straight to the continuing battle amongst Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl).
The fourth sun – Water Sun (Nahui Atl): The Aztec creation story continues… This time the gods chosen Tlaloc’s sister to be the sun. She was Calchiuhtlicue. But filled with jealousy, Tezcatlipoca and Quetzalcoatl struck down the sun. As she fell, the sky opened up and water flooded the earth. All factors had been destroyed again.
In the darkness in between the suns, Quetzalcoatl descended into the underworld to bring up the bones of the dead. They would be utilised to bring to life the people who are now right here. (That’s a whole other story!)
The fifth sun – Earthquake Sun: The gods gathered to bring yet another sun into getting. This is when the Aztec creation story actually gets about to explaining what the planet is these days.
The proud god Tecuciztecatl provided himself, but the other gods preferred the humble Nanahuatzin. A excellent fire was constructed, but Tecuciztecatl was as well afraid at the final minute to jump in. Nanahuatzin did jump. Filled with jealousy, Tecuciztecatl jumped following, followed by a brave eagle and jaguar.
Two suns started to rise in the east. It was too vibrant – the gods threw a rabbit into the face of Tecuciztecatl to dim the light, and he became the moon.
But Nanahuatzin was weak. He was motionless, so the other gods gave their blood to give him the energy to rush across the sky.
This is the world in which we now reside. The Aztecs believed its finish would come in massive earthquakes.
Here’s one thing else interesting about the Aztec creation story. The identity of the final sun isn’t in fact as straightforward as it may seem. (1167 words) www.askdryahya.com
Sources: University of Texas web page for a swift summary of the Aztec Creation Story.
Professor, Dr. Hasan A. Yahya is an Arab American writer, scholar, and professor of Sociology lives in the United States of America, originally from Palestine. He graduated from Michigan State University with two Ph.d degrees. He published 65 books plus (45 Arabic and 20 English), and 300 plus articles on sociology, religion, psychology, politics, poetry, and short stories. Philosophically, his writings concern logic, justice and human rights worldwide. Dr. Yahya is the author of Crescentologism: The Moon Theory, and Islam Finds its Way, on Amazon. He’s an specialist on Race Relations, Arab and Islamic cultures, he is also, interested in religion, planet affairs and worldwide strategic preparing for justice and human rights. www.dryahyatv.com